Japanese Beetle Guide

Do your trees / shrubs have iridescent green / brown beetles, and leaves that look like lace? Japanese's beetles will excrete pheromones, signaling others to come destroy more of the foliage they prefer. 

TREE AND SHRUB SERVICES

Distribution

This imported pest is generally found east of a line running from Michigan, southern Wisconsin and Illinois, south to Alabama. Occasional introductions are made into western states such as California and Oregon when the adult beetles or larvae are shipped in commerce. The original population was detected in New Jersey in 1916, having been introduced from Japan.

Hosts

The adult beetles are general herbivores and are known to feed on over 400 species of broad-leaved plants, although only about 50 species are preferred. The grubs will also feed on a wide variety of plant roots including ornamental trees and shrubs, garden and truck crops, and turfgrasses. They seem to especially relish Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescues and bentgrass.

Damage Symptoms

The adults are skeletonizers, that is, they eat the leaf tissue between the leaf veins but leave the veins behind. Attacked leaves look like lace that soon withers and dies. The adults will often attack flower buds and fruit. The grubs can kill small seedling plants but most commonly damage turf. The turf first appears off-color as if under water stress. Irrigating causes a short-lasting response or no response at all. The turf feels spongy under foot and can be easily pulled back like old carpet to reveal the grubs. Large populations of grubs kill the turf in irregular patches.

Plants Resistant to & Plants Susceptible to Japanese Beetles

Japanese Beetle / Grub cycle below

 Japanese Beetle / Grub cycle below

Description of Stages

The life stages of the Japanese beetle are typical of white grubs.

  • Eggs: The white oval eggs are usually about 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) long and 3/64 inch (1.0 mm) wide. They are placed in the soil where they absorb moisture and become more roundish.
  • Larvae: The larvae are typical white grubs that can be separated from other soil dwelling white grubs by the presence of a V-shaped series of bristles on the raster. First instar larvae are about 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) long while the mature third instars are about 1-1/4 inch (32 mm) long.
  • Pupae: The pupae are first cream colored and become light reddish-brown with age. The average pupa is about 1/2 inch (14 mm) long and 1/4 inch (7 mm) wide.
  • Adults: The adults are a brilliant, metallic green color, generally oval in outline, 3/8 inch (10 mm) long and 1/4 inch (7 mm) wide. The wing covers are copper-brown and the abdomen has a row of five tufts of white hairs on each side. These white tufts are diagnostic. The males have a sharp tip on the foreleg tibia while the female has a long rounded tip.

Life Cycle and Habits

Larvae that have matured by June pupate and the adult beetles emerge from the last week of June through July. On warm sunny days the new beetles crawl onto low growing plants and warm for a while before taking flight. The first beetles out of the ground seek out suitable food plants and begin to feed as soon as possible. These early arrivals begin to release a congregation pheromone (odor) which is attractive to adults that emerge later. These odors attract additional adults to gather in masses on the unfortunate plants first selected. In cool weather, the adults may feign death by dropping from the plants but normally they will take flight. Newly emerged females release an additional sex pheromone which attracts males. The first mating usually takes place on turf with several male suitors awaiting the emergence of a new female. Mating also is common on the food plants and several matings by both males and females is common.

After feeding for a day or two, the females leave feeding sites in the afternoon and burrow into the soil to lay eggs at a depth of 2 to 4 inches. Females may lay 1 to 5 eggs scattered in an area before leaving the soil. These females will leave the following morning or a day or two later and will return to feed and mate. This cycle of feeding, mating and egg laying continues until the female has laid 40 to 60 eggs. About 95% of a population are generally laid by mid-August, though adults may be found until the first frost of fall.

If the soil is sufficiently moist, eggs will swell in a few days. Egg development takes only 8 to 9 days at 80 to 90 degrees F or as long as 30 days at 65 degrees F. The first instar larvae dig to the soil surface where they feed on roots and organic material. If sufficient food and moisture are available, the first instars can complete development in 17 days at 78 degrees F or as long as 30 days at 68 degrees F. The second instars take 18 days to mature at 78 degrees F and 56 days at 68 degrees F.

While this development is occurring, grubs may tunnel laterally in search of organic matter and fresh roots. 

Plants Resistant to & Plants Susceptible to Japanese Beetles

Plants Resistant to & Plants Susceptible to Japanese Beetles

Japanese Beetle Rain -Hear our treatment stop the feeding

Sometimes after treating trees with a lot of beetles, we can hear a rain sound on the pavement. This is a light Beetle Rain, we see much heavier and hope to capture it so we can show you.